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My Research

Below is a list of my academic publications along with an abstract for each paper. You can also check them out here:

Hoeber, O., Snelgrove, R., Hoeber, L., & Wood, L. (in press). A systematic methodology for preserving the whole in large-scale qualitative-temporal research. Journal of Sport Management

Large-scale qualitative-temporal research faces significant data management and analysis challenges due to the size, textual, and temporal nature of the datasets. We propose a systematic methodology that employs visual exploration to produce a purposive sample of a much larger collection of data, followed by a combination of thematic analysis and visualization. This method allows for the preservation of the whole, producing thematic timelines that can be used to elucidate a narrative of incidents or issues as they unfold. We present a step-by-step guide for this methodology and a comprehensive example from the domain of social medial analysis to illustrate how it can be used to reveal interesting temporal patterns among tweets relevant to a noteworthy incident. The approach is useful in sport management, particularly for research related to fan behaviour, critical incident management, and media framing.

Potwarka, L., Drewery, D., Snelgrove, R., Havitz, M. E., & Mair, H. (in press). Modeling a demonstration effect: The case of spectators’ experiences at 2015 Pan Am Games’ track cycling competitions. Leisure Sciences.

The purpose of this study was to identify cognitive and affective mechanisms by which the experience of live sport spectating might inspire new sport participation. A conceptual model of demonstration effects that explored relationships among cognitive dimensions of spectators’ consumptive experiences (i.e., fantasy, flow, evaluation, aesthetics and physical attractiveness), an affective state of inspiration, and intention to try a sport on display was tested. Data were collected from spectators attending 2015 Pan Am Games track cycling competitions through a written questionnaire. Cognitive dimensions were all positively related to feelings of being inspired while watching the event. Feelings of being inspired while watching the event, in turn, had a positive effect on intention to try the sport of track cycling. An affective state of inspiration also mediated relationships between each cognitive dimension of sport event performance consumption and intention. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Goodwin, A., Snelgrove, R., Wood, L., & Taks, M. (2017). Leveraging charity sport events to develop a connection to a cause. Event Management, 21(2), 175-184.

Charity sport events can be strategically leveraged to provide benefits beyond the event itself. This study explores how charity sport events can be leveraged as an opportunity for non-profit organizations to stimulate participants’ interest in their other cause-related activities. Specifically, the relationships between motives for participation and future intentions to engage in additional cause related activities are examined. Questionnaires were used to collect data at three separate and uniquely themed running events in support of charities tied to Alzheimer’s disease, anaphylaxis, and mental health. Results from the multiple regression analysis highlight the predictive importance of cause, social and event theme as predictors of future intentions. The physical aspect of the event was an important factor in attracting participants to the event but not predictive of future intentions to engage in additional charity related activities.

Potwarka, L. R., & Snelgrove, R. (2017). Managing sport events for beneficial outcomes: Theoretical and practical insights. Event Management, 21(2), 135-137.

The purpose of this special issue of Event Management was to publish empirical and conceptual articles that contribute theoretical understandings and best practices aimed at managing sport events to attain desired benefits to host communities. The articles included in this issue employed diverse theoretical and methodological approaches.

Snelgrove, R. (2017). Advancing paradigmatic consistency and distinction in leisure studies: From epistemology to method. Annals of Leisure Research, 20, 131-136.

Paradigmatic assumptions and underpinnings of research are a necessary component of published articles in leisure studies. In this paper, I advocate for a continued and stronger connection among epistemology, theoretical perspectives, methodology, and method. Previous arguments on the topic are synthesized, critiqued, and extended to continue the dialogue among leisure scholars. Examples of how paradigmatically consistent connections can be made are offered.

Legg, J., Snelgrove, R., & Wood, L. (2016). Modifying tradition: Understanding organizational change in youth sport. Journal of Sport Management, 30, 369-381.

The purpose of this study was to examine the process of change at the youth sport level by identifying the impetus for change, responses to change by stakeholders, and the factors that constrained or aided the change process. Theoretically, this study builds upon an existing integrative change model. The context of this research is two youth soccer associations in Ontario, Canada, undergoing a long-term structural redesign mandated by the provincial soccer association. Stakeholders from local soccer clubs as well as the Ontario Soccer Association (N = 20) identified key factors influencing the implementation and success of change. Pressures to change and individual efforts made by board members, coaches and parents were noted as aiding the change process. Limited collaboration with stakeholders, poor communication, misunderstandings of the change, and constrained organizational capacity negatively impacted the change process.

Snelgrove, R., Wood, L., & Carr, K. (2016). Emerging adults with chronic illness pursuing and enhancing leisure. Leisure Sciences, 38, 34-49.

The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of the adjustment process undertaken by emerging adults living with a chronic illness in their pursuit and enjoyment of leisure. A theoretical focus is placed on the processes of selection, optimization, and compensation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 participants who have a chronic illness. Participants’ experiences were rooted much more in triumph rather than loss. Selection was influenced by a consideration of uncertainty, a desire to avoid potential embarrassment, and an acceptance or rejection of constraints. Three types of approaches that helped them optimize their leisure experience involved participants shaping their perspectives about leisure and life, enhancing resources to make leisure possible, and by living through pain and discomfort. Responding to challenges that might otherwise limit their participation or enjoyment in leisure, participants prepared for possible incidents, received support from others, and confronted negative situations.

Taks, M., Littlejohn, M., Snelgrove, R., & Wood, L. (2016). Sport events and residential happiness: The case of two non-mega sport events. Journal of Global Sport Management, 3/4, 90-109.

This contribution explores whether the hosting of two non-mega sport events affected the happiness of residents (non-attendees) in the host community, and if these feelings differed according to the type of event. The events under investigation were two multi-sport events held in the same community during the summer of 2014: the Ontario Summer Games and the 55+ Summer Games. Residents were intercepted in public spaces to complete a survey, including levels of happiness, event, and socio-demographic variables. Happiness was measured in a holistic way, including overall happiness, satisfaction, positive and reversed negative affect dimensions of subjective well-being. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed: (1) higher levels of happiness for aware, non-attendee residents when measured with a single item of overall happiness, but not for other measures of happiness in the holistic approach (causality cannot be confirmed); (2) aware, non-attendee residents did not need to have the intention to attend the events to experience these higher levels of happiness; and (3) higher feelings of happiness of aware, non-attendee residents were not different according to the type of event. From a practical perspective, these findings stress the importance of informing residents of these events so they become aware that these events are being hosted in their community. Effective communication should include feelings of pride and belonging, as these are expected to stimulate feelings of happiness of non-attendee residents.

Littlejohn, M., Taks, M., Wood, L., & Snelgrove, R. (2016). Sport events and happiness: Towards the development of a measuring instrument. World Leisure Journal, 58, 255-266.

The purpose of this study was to create a measuring instrument to capture happiness in the context of events and test it in the context of two non-mega-sport events. Three groups of residents were distinguished (event 1: Ontario Summer Games (OSG); event 2: Ontario 55 + Summer Games (55 + SG); and a control group, unaware of events: CONTR). Residents who did not attend the events were surveyed in public places in order to find out whether the mere hosting of these events had the potential to impact their happiness and well-being. The theoretical construct of subjective well-being was used to develop a survey to measure happiness and well-being holistically. Four components were developed: overall level of happiness (one item), satisfaction with important domains (three items), and specific emotions recently experienced (i.e. affect dimensions, eight items). Exploratory factor analyses confirmed one construct for satisfaction; and two constructs for the affect dimensions: positive affect (three items) and reversed negative affect (five items). ANOVAs revealed that residents aware of the 55 + SG, an “older age” sport event, reported significantly higher levels of overall happiness and satisfaction than the control group. Moreover, the 55 + SG showed significantly lower levels of negative emotions than the OSG and control groups. The results do not strongly support the notion that different types of events affect residential happiness in different ways. Future research should explore the impacts of other types of sport events on residential happiness and well-being, and account for socio-demographic factors, involvement with the event, and the weather to more precisely discern the impacts of events on residential happiness.

Snelgrove, R. (2015). Youth with chronic illness forming identities through leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 47, 154-173.

The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the ways leisure is influential in identity development and maintenance for youth with chronic illness. Drawing on a symbolic interactionist perspective, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 participants who reflected on their chronic illness experiences during adolescence and emerging adulthood. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The findings suggest that leisure played a role in shaping the identities of participants in three ways. Specifically, chronic illness made it difficult for some participants to (a) present idealized identities through leisure, (b) fit in with peers through leisure, and (c) develop an identity through action.

Danylchuk, K., Snelgrove, R., & Wood, L. (2015). Managing women’s participation in golf: A case study of organizational change. Leisure/Loisir, 39, 61-80.

The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of the success factors and challenges associated with implementing a change initiative aimed at increasing women’s continued participation in golf. Drawing on an integrative model of organizational change as a framework, this study employed a case study approach using qualitative methods to examine one golf course’s change to existing women’s golf leagues. Data were collected through focus groups with club staff and participants in the golf league. Findings describe a process of innovation in response to political and functional pressures, a systematic effort to plan and sell a new vision, and the reasons behind the successful adoption by the members. This study has relevance for sport organizations tasked with increasing women’s participation. Caution, however, should be exercised in extrapolating the findings to all sport organizations as this is a single case study.

Snelgrove, R., Wood, L., & Havitz, M. (2013). The development of attachment to a physically active charity event. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 18, 133-140.

Given the commonplace of physically active charity events, it is increasingly important for charitable organizations to understand how participants form personal attachments to their events so that marketers can maximize the amount of funds raised and achieve an attractive return on marketing expenditures. This exploratory study examines the ways in which participants at a walk/run for multiple sclerosis form personal attachments to the event. The limited work that has been conducted in this area has focused on cycling events, which may not include all types of participants (e.g., people with physical restrictions tied to the cause) and their experiences. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that employed open-ended qualitative questions. The findings suggest three ways in which participants form attachments to the event, including being known as a fundraiser, aligning self and cause, and developing social bonds.

Snelgrove, R., & Wood, L. (2010). Attracting and leveraging visitors at a charity cycling event. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 15, 269-285.

Sport events are increasingly being recognized as integral to a destination’s marketing strategy. Charity sport events are a type of event that can be leveraged by local businesses and destination marketers as a way of stimulating flow-on tourism, shaping an image and generating word of mouth. Yet, little research has been conducted in this area. Previous research has shown that length of stay in a destination and group composition can impact subsequent tourist behaviors. Thus, visitors’ push and pull motivations and their influences on participants’ choice of event and mode of participation (team versus individual) were assessed as a way of developing this line of research. The motives of supporting others, learning about the destination and cycling identity were predictive of event choice. Social motives and an identity tied to cycling predicted participants’ mode of participation. Further, motives were distinguished between first-time and repeat visitors. First-time visitors were more motivated than repeat visitors by the physical aspects of the event and the opportunity to learn about the destination. Conversely, repeat visitors were more motivated by identities tied to the cause and the sport at hand than first-time visitors.

Wood, L., Snelgrove, R., & Danylchuk, K. (2010). Segmenting volunteer fundraisers at a charity sport event. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 22(1), 38-54.

Charitable organizations are increasingly using sport events as an approach to generate funds and raise awareness. Researchers have suggested that sport events are particularly attractive to volunteer fundraisers because they provide an opportunity to engage in two meaningful activities simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to address this largely untested proposition by assessing the presence of various segments of participants based on an identity defined in part by fundraising for the cause and/or cycling. Additionally, how these profiles differed based on the amount of funds raised, length of participation with the event, and basic demographic variables were also examined. The results suggest that four different segments existed, labeled event enthusiasts, cause fundraisers, road warriors, and non-identifiers. These segments differed in the amount of funds raised and their length of involvement with the event. As such, this study demonstrates the value of segmenting volunteer fundraisers based on event-related identities.

Snelgrove, R., & Havitz, M. E. (2010). Looking back in time: The pitfalls and potential of retrospective methods in leisure studies. Leisure Sciences, 32, 337-351.

An increased focus on alternate theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and methods is needed in leisure studies. Although retrospective methods have been employed in a range of disciplines, criticism has been leveled at their validity, reliability, and trustworthiness. Possibilities and critiques of retrospective methods are discussed as either attempts at controlling or interpreting the past. Techniques for minimizing post-positivist concerns include stimulating memories using cues such as photos, allowing participants to report freely rather than forcing responses, and studying salient phenomenon that are subject to accurate recall. Interpretive methods such as narrative inquiry, autoethnography, and collective memory-work are also discussed and debated.

Snelgrove, R., Taks, M., Chalip, L., & Green, B. C. (2008). How visitors and locals at a sport event differ in motives and identity. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 13, 165 – 180.

Although the literature on events differentiates between locals, casual attendees, and those who have travelled specifically to attend the event, little is known about how the types of attendee differ. This study compared the fan motivation, leisure motivation, and identification with the subculture of athletics reported by a sample (N = 777) of attendees at the 2005 Pan American Junior Athletics Championships. Age, gender, and income were also included. Regression analyses were used to determine the structure of relations among the variables, and to ascertain whether the levels of motivation or identity varied among the three types of attendee. Tests for linear restrictions were used to determine whether the structure of relations among the variables differed by type of attendee. The structure of relations among the variables did not differ among the three types of attendee, but attendees who had travelled specifically to attend the event reported substantially higher identification with the subculture of athletics, and slightly higher fan motivation. Identification with the subculture of athletics mediated much of the effect. Females reported higher fan motivation and higher leisure motivation than did males. Age had a small but significant relationship with fan motivation, and income had a small but significant relationship with leisure motivation. Findings are generally consistent with predictions derived from theories of motivation, subculture, and gender roles. It is suggested that marketing communications directed out-of-town should highlight opportunities to strengthen, parade, and celebrate, while those in the local trading radius should underscore the entertainment, aesthetics, and vicarious achievement featured at the event.




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